This is a doctor who treats medical eye problems and performs laser and eye surgery (like me).  An ophthalmologist completes a four-year undergraduate degree with a focus on “pre-med” subjects including biology, chemistry, and physics. They then complete a four-year medical school program, working in a teaching hospital to become a medical doctor (MD). After this, we typically complete a year-long internship in a hospital rotating through inpatient wards, ICUs, and emergency rooms.  We then proceed to an intense three-year residency eye program focusing on medical and surgical treatment of eye disease. Finally, some ophthalmologists take on an additional 1-2 years to sub-specialize in retina, cornea, glaucoma, etc.

Dr. Timothy Root is a practicing ophthalmologist and cataract surgeon in Daytona Beach, Florida. His books, video lectures, and training resources can be found at:


  1. Do you mean, who is the best at refraction … an ophthalmologist or optometrist?

    They are both good for refraction. The technique is not terribly hard in the majority of cases. Generally speaking, however, optometrists are better at difficult refractions because they do it more often.


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